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Fiber
  
Is short for optical fiber, is a use of light in glass or plastic fibers made of principle reached in the total reflection of light transmission tool. Optical fiber from the former Vice-Chancellor The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kao invention.
  
Micro-fiber packaged in a plastic jacket, the Bu Zhiyu allow it to bend and break. Typically, the fiber end of the launcher to use light-emitting diode (light emitting diode, LED) or a beam of laser light pulses sent to the optical fiber, optical fiber of the other side of the receiving device using the light-sensitive elements detect pulse.
  
In daily life, due to light in the optical fiber conduction loss than the loss of electrical conduction in the wire is much lower long-distance optical fiber is used as the transmission of information.
  
Fiber and cable are usually two terms will be confused. The majority of optical fiber before being used by several layers of protection structures to be coated, coated fiber optic cable after the cable is called Ji Bei. Fiber outer layer of protection structures to prevent the surrounding environment on the fiber injury, such as water, fire, electric shock treatment. fiber optic cable is divided into: fiber, buffer layer, and drape. fiber optics and coaxial cable similar to, but no mesh shield. Center is a light transmission glass core. In the multi-mode fiber, the core diameter is 15μm ~ 50μm, broadly in line with a considerable thickness of human hair. The single-mode fiber core diameter of 8μm ~ 10μm. Outside the core surrounded by a layer of lower refractive index than the core glass envelope in order to maintain the core within the fiber. And then the outside is a layer of thin plastic coat to protect the envelope. Optical fiber bundles are often beaten up outside a mechanical protection. Core of a fiber is usually made of quartz glass by a small cross-sectional area of the double concentric cylinders, which texture, brittle, easily broken and needed plus a layer of protection.

Cable
Fiber is a kind of the message sent from one end to the other side of the medium. Is a glass or plastic fibers, as a medium for the transmission of messages through. _
Usually "fiber" and "cable" two terms will be confused. The majority of optical fiber before being used must be coated with several layers of protection structures, post-coated cable dubbed "cable." Fiber outer protective structure can be to prevent harm to the surrounding environment on the optical fiber, such as water, fire, electric shock treatment. fiber optic cable is divided into: fiber, buffer layer, and drape. shown below:
Fiber Properties
As the fiber is a transmission medium, it can be like a normal copper line to send telephone calls or computer data, etc., the difference is that fiber optic transmission of light signals rather than the telecommunications number. Therefore, optical fiber has many unique advantages.
Such as: broadband width. Low-loss. _ Shielding electromagnetic radiation. Weight. Security. _ Secrecy.
The operation of fiber systems
_ You may be aware that the process of transmission of any communication, including: encoding → Transport → decoding, of course, optical fiber transmission system is also roughly the same. Electronic signals input, through a transmitter to a digital signal coding, a light signal, the light transmitted through optical fibers for the media, sent to the other side of the receiver, receiver and then decode the signal, restore the original electronic signal output.
The use of optical fiber cable
Distinction between the application of fiber optic cable can be divided into three kinds: professional purposes, generally outside the house, the general house. In a professional purposes, including submarine cables, high-voltage tower in the empty frame optical cable, optical radiation resistance of nuclear power plants, chemical industry of the anti - corrosion of fiber optic cable. The general classification of the premises and the general differences outside, according to various types of fiber optic cable based on the production design of the characteristics, extent to which it applies different.


Wire and cable is used for electric power, communications and related materials transport purposes. "Wire" and "cable" and there is no strict boundaries. Usually small number of core diameter and a small, simple structure, the product known as the wires, there is no insulation as bare wires, the other called the cable; conductor cross-sectional area of the larger (more than 6 square millimeters), known as the big wires, small (less than or equal to 6 square millimeters), as a small wire, insulated wire, also known as wire cloth.
Wires and cables include bare wire, electrical wire and electrical wire insulation, power cables, communication cables and optical cable.

Wire & Cable named
The integrity of wire and cable names are usually more complicated, so people sometimes use a simple name (usually a class name) instead of the standard models with the full name, such as "low-voltage cables" on behalf of all the plastic insulation 0.6/1kV class electric power cable. Wire and cable-type spectrum is more perfect, it can be said, as long as wire and cable to write the standard model specifications, can be clear and specific products, but its full name what is it?
Wire and cable products, named the following principles:
1, product names, including the contents of the
(1) product applications or the size of the class name
(2) The type of material or product mix;
(3) The important characteristics of the product or additional features
The basic order of names according to the above, and sometimes in order to emphasize important or additional features, will feature written description of the corresponding structures in front of or before.
2, the structure described in the order of
Description of the product structure from the inside to the outside according to the principles of: conductor - "Insulation -" inside the sheath - "outer protection layer -" armor type.
3, to simplify
Does not cause confusion in the case, some structure described in writing, or shorthand, such as automotive line, soft line does not allow aluminum conductors, and do not describe the conductor material.
Case:
Rated voltage 8.7/15kV flame-retardant copper core XLPE insulated steel tape armored PVC sheathed power cable
(Too long!)
"Rated Voltage 8.7/15kV" - use the occasion / voltage rating
"Flame" - stressed that the characteristics of
"Copper" - Conductor Materials
"Cross-linked polyethylene insulated" - insulating materials
"Steel armor" - armored layer of material and type (dual-strip gap around the package)
"PVC jacket" - both inside and outside sheathing materials (both inside and outside sheathing materials are the same in writing within the jacket material)
"Power cable" - the name of the product categories
Corresponding models written ZR-YJV22-8.7/15, models of writing, see the following instructions.

Model
Wire and cable composition and sequence of the model is as follows:
[1: Categories, usage] [2: conductor] [3: Insulation] [4: Inner sheath] [5: The structural characteristics] [6: outer protection layer or derivative] - [7: Use the characteristics of]
1-5, and article 7 with the phonetic alphabet, said, polymers were first place in English letters, each letter can be 1-2; No. 6 is 1-3 digits.
Type in the omitted principles: wire and cable products, copper is mainly used conductor material, it is code-named Copper T provinces to write, but the bare wires and bare conductors, except products. Bare wires and bare conductors products category, power cable category, Wire products do not indicate major categories code, electrical wire and cable equipment, classes and communication cables not listed categories, but the specified Class or series code and so on.
Item 7 is to use a variety of special occasions or additional special use requirements of the mark in the "-" after the phonetic alphabet tag. Sometimes in order to highlight the item, write to the top. Such as the ZR-(flame retardant), NH-(refractory), WDZ-(LSZH, enterprise standard),-TH (hot and humid areas), FY-(anti-termite, enterprise standard) and so on.
Digital signage outside the armored layer or outer layer jacket
0 No ---
An interlocking armor fiber outside the
2 double-strip PVC jacket
3 small round steel wire polyethylene jacket
4 Cuyuan wire
5 wrinkles (corrugating) strip
6 pairs of aluminum (or aluminum) with a
8 copper wire braided
9 steel wire braided


Wire and cable applications can be divided into three categories

  
1, power system

  
Power system used in wire and cable products are mainly bare overhead wires, bus (bus), power cable (plastic cable, oil-paper power cable (basic power cables have been replaced by plastic), rubber-sheathed cables, overhead insulated cables), branch cable (instead of part of the bus), wire and electrical equipment such as wire and cable with electrical equipment.

  
2, information transmission system

  
For information transmission system of wires and cables are mainly telephone cable, TV cable, electronic cables, RF cables, fiber optic cables, data cable, wire, electrical communication or other composite cables.

  
3, mechanical equipment, instrumentation systems

  
In addition to this part of overhead wires, bare almost all other products are applied, but the main electricity cables, magnet wires, data cables, instrumentation cables.

  
Wire and cable products are mainly divided into five categories

  
1, bare wires and bare conductor products

  
The main features of products are: pure metal conductor, no insulation and jacket layer, such as ACSR, copper and aluminum bus lines, and electric locomotives; processing technology is mainly pressure processing, such as smelting, rolling, and Latin America system, Stranded / compacted twisted and so on; products are mainly used in the suburbs, rural areas, the user theme, switch cabinets and so on.

  
2, power cable

  
The main features of products are: conductor outside the crowded (around) package insulating layer, such as overhead insulated cables, or a few core strands (corresponding to the phase of power system lines, the zero line and ground), such as two or more core Aerial Insulated Cable , or an additional jacket

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